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Creativity: Definition, Research, and Measurement

Taken at face value the word creativity is fairly vague, ambiguous, and leaves the doors wide open for idiosyncratic interpretation. Depending on one’s individual biases it can be construed as imagination, novelty, originality, genius, talent, giftedness, the avant-garde, and other synonymous terms. Creativity derives from the verb “to create,” meaning to bring somethin ..

Schizophrenia as a Social Construct

Derived from the Hellenistic words “skhízein” and “phrḗn” (literally split-mind) schizophrenia is a complex heterogeneous disorder wrought by both genetic and environmental factors, relegating affected individuals to suboptimum levels of functioning in personal, social, and vocational domains. There is prodigious stigmatization and misapprehension connected with  ..

The Eternal Debate: Are Our Lives Predetermined or Not? (Historical Context)

The historical courses of “fate” and “free will” began millennia ago, inextricably linked with revelatory components of early religious and spiritual life. These deterministic perspectives of the cosmos were propagated by the priesthood cross-culturally. Looking to the cupola of the sky, these meticulous star-watchers surmised that temporal cycles of birth, death,  ..

The Eternal Debate: Are our lives predetermined or not? (Introduction)

From time immemorial the inquisitive among us have spent innumerable hours philosophizing about existence. Is “life,” the integrated and unitary flavor of conscious mental experience, under our volitional control? Or are conscious intentions and perceived acts of will of unconscious origin? Are goal-directed actions, perceived by me, you, and others as being initiated vol ..

The History of Hypnosis: Video

Click on the link below to watch a video on the history of hypnosis: ..

Existence Itself as Symbolic

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. - Hamlet (1.5.167-8), Hamlet to Horatio We are all marionettes recapitulating the same circular motions within linear, co-created narratives across expanses of time. On the rare occasion we peer upwards and become aware of the prehensile forces to which we are attached with strings, ..

The Human Imagination: Our Divine Inheritance

For Olga Louchekova-Schwartz “We are gods but we are not aware of it. We suffer from a self-inflicted amnesia. The aim is to reawaken that which we have always been and we shall always be.” – Dr. Stylianos Atteshlis Recently I found myself cogitating the idea that the behavior of the universe is much more harmoniously aligned to a nonphysical than a me ..

The Ancient Egyptian Mother Goddess in the Context of Archetypal Mythology, Narrative, Healing, and Postmodern Spirituality

Save for reflecting the sociocultural milieus and encompassing blueprints for emotional stability, identity, and behaviour in all known cultures, mythical narrative probably emerged, in part, as a mechanism of neural integration and coordination between the dominant and nondominant hemispheres of the brain–in other words to facilitate homeostatic balance and psychosomatic health. In ..

Consciousness, Illness, and Belief: The Divorce of Body and Soul and their Celebrated Reunion (Part Two)

To the humanists’ dismay, the conceptual ambivalence created by a scientific worldview in which an outer, measurable reality remained incongruent with the value-laden mental world of private experience ended up birthing a proto-psychological discipline that went under the banner of ‘behaviourism’. Behaviourism continued the diabolical Darwinian enterprise  ..

Consciousness, Illness, and Belief: The Divorce of Body and Soul and their Celebrated Reunion (Part One)

The sciences endeavour to reach some kind of consensual understanding regarding our origins, constitution, limitations, and the projected outcome of our targeted behaviours on both the personal and collective levels. When I think of true science, I think of an aesthetic Gaea-based empirical philosophy mediated by the politic of unbiased observation, a process of critical inquiry that resi ..

The Holy Mountain: My Pilgrimage to Moni Vatopedi on Mt. Athos (Part two)

The stand out attractions were the Byzantine clock tower, the refectory (trapeza), and the katholikon or principal church with its visual embellishments. Whilst awaiting consignment at the synodikon I had overheard a senior monk informing one of the other pilgrims that the auburn-coloured katholikon was established sometime in the tenth or eleventh century and thereafter consecrated to th ..

The Holy Mountain: My Pilgrimage to Moni Vatopedi on Mt. Athos (Part One)

Three words spring to mind when I remember Mt. Athos in Greece: belief, beauty, and paradox. The hermits, monks, and priests who take up residence on the Holy Mountain and the pilgrims who sojourn there to escape the supersonic pace of the world often find themselves possessed by a conviction in higher causes, the idea that an omniscient eye of cerulean blue is watchful of planet Earth. I ..

The Aradale Mental Asylum: Part Three

Scouring the records we see that the Aradale Mental Asylum exhibited a residential cocktail of fascinating individuals. I would postulate that for most, the tactless indiscretion of verbalizing outrageous beliefs about the cosmos combined with the short-fused nature of relatives, friends, or acquaintances exasperated and fed up with the recurrence of the former would have occasioned  ..

The Aradale Mental Asylum: Part Two

Another aspect of the patient files screaming for commentary is the clinical diagnostic practice of separating mental illnesses into two broad categories: ‘manias’ and ‘melancholias’. The ‘manias’ are further subdivided into explicit types, principally delusional, recurrent, chronic, and homicidal, whilst the ‘melancholias’ branch out i ..

The Aradale Mental Asylum: Part One

If walls could talk those of the Ararat Mental Asylum would surely echo harrowing cries of horror, hopelessness, anguish, and excruciating pain. Having visited the asylum just a few weeks ago, I would concur with popular opinion that it is one of the most haunted locations in Australia. The depth and breadth of oppression inside the wards is quite tangible, as unimaginably real as a whiff ..

From Apples to Aphrodite: Fifth E-book now available

The e-book From Apples to Aphrodite (2013) covers most of my earlier work on Hellenistic history and culture and includes articles that were written for the “It’s all Greek to me” blog tour held at ( in mid-2011. The work is divided into five specific sections, all of which are orientated towards a different aspect of Hellenis ..

Roberto Assagioli and Psychosynthesis: An Introduction

Roberto Assagioli is best known for his practical application of transpersonal philosophy to psychotherapeutic methodology. As a product of upper-middle-class Venetian life, Roberto was exposed to the kind of cultural nexus that facilitates much more holistic views of psychology than ones afforded by Darwinian variants (behaviourism and psychoanalysis) at the time. Roberto ..

Roberto Assagioli and Psychosynthesis

Pictured above is Roberto Assagioli’s egg diagram of the human psyche. Encompassing the whole (but not represented in the diagram) is the Transpersonal Self. ..

The Concept of Dissociation: DSM and Ken Wilber

In 1980, the DSM initiated changes to the phenomenological compartmentalization of psychiatric illnesses to reflect clinical and academic perceptions that had been wrought in the last few decades. Foremost was the grouping of somatoform manifestations of dissociation epitomized by conversion forms of hysterical neurosis under Somatoform Disorders. Lumped in with these were a host of  ..

The Concept of Dissociation: Ferenczi, Spiegel, Tart, and Hilgard

Hysterical neurosis gradually receded from the clinical arena in the early twentieth century and patients suffering from complex conditions like multiple personality, bifurcations of consciousness, and other cognitive disintegrations were hastily lumped into the reductive Kraepelin dichotomy of Dementia praecox, a psychiatric taxonomy that was later reamalgamated under the psychotic  ..

The Concept of Dissociation: Freud's Unconscious Versus Janet's Subconscious

We could probably attribute the differences between the Freudian and Janetian understanding of what constitutes dissociation to formative influences and natural tendencies. Janet, for one, was a scrupulous empiricist who abjured theory and came equipped with an eagle eye for clinical particularities. He refrained from making overarching generalizations and kept well within the constr ..

The Concept of Dissociation: Sigmund Freud and Repression

Everybody is a product of their environment and Sigmund Freud was no exception. His formative years would have entailed an intimate acquaintance with the same intellectual treasure chest that helped shape his schematic repression model. Nested within were scientific positivism and Darwin’s theory of natural selection, reductionist philosophies attempting to sweep aside the para ..

The Concept of Dissociation: Breuer, Freud, and the Break from Janet

Late in the nineteenth century dissociation paraded under names championed by the French researchers like dédoublement de la personnalité, existences successives, désagrégation mentale, état second, and many others. It was even acknowledged as an integral mechanism in traumatic experience by Josef Breuer (1842-1925) and Sigmund Freud (1 ..

The Concept of Dissociation: William James, Boris Sidis, and Morton Prince

In contradistinction to the French who worked within defined phenomenological parameters, their maritime rivals, the British, heeded the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) whose inclination was to conceive of any disintegrated functions of consciousness (i.e. memory, identity, and perception of the environment) as dissociative. During the early years of the nineteenth century, it w ..

The Concept of Dissociation: Pierre Janet

The next momentous step in the evolutionary development of the concept of dissociation was made by the great philosopher and experimental psychologist Pierre Janet (1859-1947). Unwaveringly pragmatic in his professional and personal dealings, Janet succeeded in backpedalling against the occult backwash of psychiatric Romanticism and the philosophy of nature by adopting scientific emp ..

The Concept of Dissociation: Franz Anton Mesmer and the Marquis de Puységur

The name Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) is often evoked with respect to the evolutionary history of hypnosis. In actual fact he’s something of an ancillary pioneer, having stumbled upon the technique completely by chance. But save for this remarkable discovery he was also responsible for the foundation of a philosophical system that would facilitate the mid-nineteenth century e ..

The Persistence of Memory: A Letter to Benjamin Franklin

In Philadelphia in 1731, an era most important to America’s cultural and pneumatic evolution, Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) establishes the nation’s first library. Though fully operational, the library didn’t begin loaning out books until about 1774, the time period that Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was published. This letter, written in honor of this venerable ..

Carl Jung and Alchemical Symbolism (Part Four)

Initially Jung’s historiography of alchemy as a sequence of pseudochemical operations exemplifying an unconscious projection of individuation was very convivial, something which shouldn’t come as any great surprise given its notorious reputation as an intellectual cul-de-sac for contemporary historians of culture. Nevertheless in the aftermath of Jungian sensationism, rad ..

Carl Jung and Alchemical Symbolism (Part Three)

In the second part of Psychology and Alchemy we encounter intellectual fruits hoping to unearth correlations in support of an inherently self-regulating psyche, a ten month labour that involved the examination of fifty-nine dreams and visionary experiences belonging to the unconscious life of Nobel prize-winning physicist Wolfgang Paoli with whom Jung had collaborated to pioneer the  ..

Carl Jung and Alchemical Symbolism (Part Two)

Roughly twenty years after the circulation of Waite’s texts, the Sinologist Richard Wilhelm (1873-1930) sent Jung a cryptic Chinese Taoist treatise entitled, The Secret of the Golden Flower. In a first perusal of the text Jung was struck by the ample use of mandala symbolism –the wheel of life or magic circle–which cropped up repeatedly in the psychedelic dream ..

Carl Jung and Alchemical Symbolism (Part One)

As a major interpreter of the Western esoteric tradition–most notably alchemy, astrology, and the Gnostic sects of antiquity–Car Gustav Jung’s (1875-1961) opinions were informed by the cultural milieu of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Contrary to the tapering, reductionist view of eclectic contemporary scholars who have contributed the ongoing mytholog ..

Western Esotericism in Review: The Theosophical Society and its Original Concerns

As a discipline seeking knowledge of the divine, theosophy has been around since late antiquity but it wasn’t until the nineteenth century that an esoteric society was formed to account for the study of the phenomenal world through its multidisciplinary kaleidoscope. The two protagonists responsible for its establishment were a chain-smoking Bohemian by the name of Helena Petro ..

Omm Sety: A Life Lived on the Mythic Level (Prelude)

The terrain of ancient Egypt has stirred the imagination of the West for time immemorial, or at least since the time the Greek historian Plutarch (c. 46-120ce) travelled there and transcribed the only surviving written version of the renowned folktale Peri Isidos kai Osiridos which involved the divine brother-sister couple of Osiris and Isis. The ancient Greeks themselves saw Egypt as the ..

Paracelsian Alchemy: The Origin of Christian Theosophy

Before attempting to explain how alchemy facilitated the emergence of Christian theosophy, it would be wise to define what is meant by the term ‘theosophy’. As an esoteric gnosis within Christianity, the latter is a speculative system closely allied to Hermeticism and Platonism that perceives God’s creation in the context of an emanationist cosmology. In such a wor ..

Alchemy in Jacob Boehme's Theosophy

During the Early Modern Period the world was undergoing a major transition from a geocentric to a heliocentric cosmogony; from an occult and animistic landscape to a mechanistic and reductionist one defined by mechanistic processes that operated independently of any conscious and creative force. The indeterminate space left vacant between Copernican limelight and the N ..

The Role of Mesmerism in the Rebirth of Spiritual Alchemy (Part Two)

Englishwoman Mary Anne South (1817-1910) was a leading figure in the reinvigoration of the spiritual interpretation of alchemy during a Victorian era where every layperson seemed to be captivated by the occult. She grew up around her father, a wealthy and erudite gentleman who lived at Bury House, Gosport in New Hampshire and immersed himself in the psychic revolution of the nineteenth ce ..

The Role of Mesmerism in the Rebirth of Spiritual Alchemy (Part One)

The name Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) is often evoked with respect to the evolutionary history of hypnosis. In actual fact he’s something of an ancillary pioneer, having stumbled upon the technique completely by chance. But save for this remarkable discovery he was also responsible for the foundation of a philosophical system that would facilitate the mid-nineteenth century emerge ..

The Evolution of Mind: A Brief Historiographical Review

One of the most critical issues in science today pertains to the relationship of the brain to the mind. Is the mind merely a functional by-product of the brain’s evolution or is the mind, that rich polygonal stream of mental life known as self-awareness or self-consciousness, a disembodied entity that appropriates the comprehensive neural systems of the cerebral cortex to express it ..

Religious Healing and the "Cure of Souls"

What we find with respect to the history of psychotherapy in the Western world is that it preserved more practical aspects like the exchange of vows, prayer, and confession whilst abandoning “superstitious” aspects deemed irreconcilable with ecclesiastical dogma (i.e. magical invocation, voluntary possession, and rituals). The Catholic Church, now a self-appointed intermediary ..

Basic Characteristics of Primitive Healing

In systematically examining a great many indigenous psychotherapeutic methods and their relationship to modern psychotherapy, it becomes clear that there are five major characteristics that separate the two variants from one another. The first is concerned with role and influence within the general community; having been reduced to operate within a denomination of scientific inqu ..

Ceremonial Healing

From the scope of indigenous therapies covered thus far there is one important methodological aspect that is a therapeutic agent in its own right–ceremony. In many indigenous tribes unknown pathogenic causes can be cast in personified roles with formative powers of the universe where the healing ceremony becomes something of a vigorous re-enactment intended to exorcise the illness f ..

Babylonian and Hellenistic Astrology: Was There a Radical Discontinuity?

Blue astrological clock from St. Mark's Square in Venice, Italy In an article that will shortly become available to subscribers only Dr. Paul Kiritsis reveals if there was ever a radical discontinuity between the astrology developed and practiced in Mesopotamia and the the later Hellenistic variant that was orientated towards horoscopes. ..

Healing Through the Gratification of Frustrations

“Hope deferred makes the heart sick, but the wish come true is a tree of life” (Proverbs XIII, 12) For most of us the idea that extreme dissatisfaction can lead to aggravation and disquiet and eventually to some form of physical illness isn’t all that farfetched. I can recall a great many instances in my life where prolonged internal conflict and loss of funda ..

Healing Through Confession

Many people are often surprised when they learn that the act of confessing is actually a therapeutic method, and an effective one at that. In turning to a significant other, perhaps a priest, confidant or just another human being and entrusting them with our innermost thoughts, secrets, and problems, we are in effect expelling the accumulation of psychological garbage and cleansing ou ..

Demonic Possession

A specific form of possession I would like to discuss separately is demonic possession. Such cases are usually highly distressing and challenging for both the individual affected and the loved ones around him or her. Interestingly, possession by evil spirits or elementals has been rife in the history of Western civilization, particularly in European countries during the High Middle Ages a ..

Possession and Exorcism

One ancient disease theory that we have yet to mention is spirit possession, the belief that a foreign entity has penetrated the human body and taken control of the part of the mind that identifies with the ego, the “I”. In souring the literature on spirit possession, it immediately becomes evident that indigenous cultures utilize three primary methods to expel them from the b ..

Temple Healing and Philosophical Psychotherapy

The advent of Western civilization, usually localized in Mesopotamia around 4000 bce, saw the rise of religious and political institutions that encouraged a twofold division of the earliest medicine known into two specific denominations, temple medicine and lay medicine. Heeded by the temple priest or priestess, temple medicine supplanted ancient psychotherapeutic methods that had dealt w ..

Magical Healing

The worldview of our ancestors is as variegated as it is deep. One particular method of healing that touches upon ancient medicine though are much broader in its epistemological scope is magic. Magic is, amongst other things, an attempt to thwart, divert, accelerate, or fiddle with the natural order and fundamental harmony or the inner workings of fate. Contemporary mechanistic science vi ..

Healing Through Incubation

There are many strains of primeval therapy. One of the most interesting and awe-inspiring is incubation, a procedure that literally means “lying on the ground” and involves experiencing curative visions whilst asleep on the floor of a consecrated site, usually a cavern or temple. The autochthonous cultures of the world made ample use of incubation in prehistoric times and pass ..

Rational Therapies in Primitive Medicine

Ever present in this day and age is the erroneous notion that Western medicine has the etymology of most illnesses pinned down and that the indigenous healers were operating from entirely false premises. Nothing could be further from the truth. Often we forget that only the most severe cases of physical and mental ailments were reserved for medicine men; the rest were dealt with by lay do ..

Primitive Psychotherapy: Healing Through Hypnosis

As a therapeutic method, hypnosis is quite at home in modern dynamic psychiatry and psychotherapy though the degree to which it influenced the healing methods of autochthonous cultures remains indeterminate. Naturally it would be ignorant to assume that the therapeutic practices of the Australian Aborigines, the American Indians, the Incas, the Southeast Asians, and the native African peo ..

Primitive Psychotherapy: Intrusion and Extrusion of Disease-Object

Another disease theory pertaining to the autochthonous populations of the world revolves around the extraction of a foreign object or substance from the sufferer’s body. In such cases, there is an exclusive predisposition for people to believe that the disease is caused not by the object or substance itself but by a harmful radiation or essence that emanates from it. The perpetrator ..

Primitive Psychotherapy: Shamanism and the Search for the Soul

In many aboriginal cultures around the world–the Australians, the Philippine Pygmies, the Negritos of the Malay Peninsula, the Siberians, the Northwest Africans, and the Melanesians–illness is ascribed to fragmentation of the soul from the human body. The idea probably stems from the fact that the world of dreams differs markedly from conscious experience. When we fall aslee ..

The Unconscious in History: Primitive Psychotherapy

For most of us the subconscious mind–a level of reality rendered fully accessible during altered states of consciousness–would seem like a recently established phenomenon in the development of psychology, somewhat popularized by the intellectual ramblings of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. But if one scrutinized the subtle psychotherapeutic methods used in the treatment of  ..

An Analysis of Agnolo Bronzino's "Allegory" featuring Aphrodite and Eros

If you click on the link below, you can watch Dr. Paul Kiritsis analyze the Renaissance painting "Allegory" by Agnolo Bronzino featuring Aphrodite and Eros, or Venus and Cupid. ( ..

The Contribution of Alchemy to the Renaissance

Contrary to what the occult dilettante or historical romanticist may think, the esoteric undercurrent known as Hermeticism has never been a distinctive philosophical edifice in its own right, nor has it competed for cultural prominence against the major monotheistic religions–Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. Perhaps the best way to grasp it is to return to the cultural  ..

The Elixir of Life

Much of the quixotic appeal of alchemy derives from its fantastical ambitions to perfect nature, to make “gold” of detritus and stardust. For humanity as a whole, the fascination with such a tradition no doubt stems from an inherent curiosity as to whether or not limitations imposed by Mother Nature herself can ever be transcended. This question of paramount importance h ..

The Magnum Opus

To understand the motivation behind alchemy we must travel back to the second century ce, a time when pseudepigraphic writings aimed at nurturing a philosophical and theosophical coherence of the world were ripe. The majority of these syncretised Gnostic, Stoic, Platonic and Aristotelian elements and were attributed to such historically unverifiable figures as the thrice-greatest Hermes T ..

Alchemy: A Historiographical Analysis (Part Two)

Much emphasis nowadays is placed upon Ptolemaic Alexandria as having provided the cultural humus out of which alchemical theory and practice arose. However a frequently ignored fact is that during this time the dual quest for the Philosopher’s Stone and the Elixir of Life had already evolved into a full-fledged denomination of inquiry for the Chinese. As a matter of fact, it just so ..

Alchemy: A Historiographical Analysis (Part One)

In contemporary times the word “alchemy” is most often connected with a transformation or change of some sort and has even been used in a pejorative sense by the scientific community as a synonym for “pseudoscience”, but lying deep inside the kernel of the word itself is both the potentiality of a quest and the fulfilment or culmination of that quest. It is an arch ..

The Trembling Veil of the Virgin Mary (Part Two)

Another honorary title was conferred upon the Virgin Mary shortly afterwards when, at the council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, Patriarch Anatolius of Constantinople declared her Aeiparthenos or “Ever-Virgin”. Save for having inducted her into an illustrious role of honour which included the goddesses Isis and Cybele, the title also elevat ..

The Trembling Veil of the Virgin Mary (Part One)

Few countries around the world enjoy the rich and multi-coloured religious and folk traditions of Greece proper. As the progeny of Greek parentage, I am most fortunate to have experienced the vast majority of these throughout the course of my lifetime. One that always fascinated me as a youngster was the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, the culmination and most dramatic episode of a sal ..

Eve: The Fallen Goddess

Few people living in the developed countries of the world wouldn’t have heard of the creation account of Genesis central to the mythology of Semitic monotheism. As an exponent of the tribal Arian and Semitic psyche, the myth itself ascribes the creation of our universe to an entirely chauvinistic and compromised male Godhead named Yehovah-Elohim. In actual fact, everything that migh ..

Gnostic Symbology

Just like their pagan forebears and contemporaries, the Gnostics usually wore jewellery and used various implements for talismanic purposes. These may have been apotropaic in nature, or alternatively, they may have hoped to draw desired people, circumstances or energies to themselves through cosmic sympathies and analogies. Yet another possibility is that they were used to remind the owne ..

The Ophites and the Cult of the Serpent

The theologians and church fathers whom laid the foundations of the orthodox stream of Christianity at the Councils of Nicaea and Chaldedon in 325 and 451ce identified the Gnostic religion as a single, heretical current that had been sparked by the magician Simon Magus in the second half of the first century ce and kept alive by a succession of teachers that included Jewish Gnostic Valent ..

On the Origin of the World

At times, one can marvel at the sheer scope of archaeological treasures that have come to light in the last few centuries–the discovery of the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, the excavation of ancient cities like Troy, Cnossos, Pompeii and Herculaneum, and the unearthing of important historical artefacts like the Tarim mummies, the Turin Shroud and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Once in  ..

The Cult of Hathor-Isis and the Mother Archetype (Part Two)

The growing independence of masculinity and systematization of ego consciousness in early mankind manifests itself as the moon-god Osiris (Plate 12). It can be inferred that Osiris in his early form is a son-lover of the Great Mother, as the moon is a spiritual symbol of the mother archetype. He is the man-god whom shifts Predynastic Egypt from a matriarchal to a patriarchal society, from ..

The Cult of Hathor-Isis and the Mother Archetype (Part One)

Today we will be looking at the Great Mother archetype, and specifically its evolution in ancient Egypt. In order to see the Plates which accompany the following study you will need to watch the YouTube videos. "The triune cult of the Egyptian Hathor-Nut-Isis is the longest lasting cult in the history of Western Civilization. The cult had its beginnings in the Predy ..

The Labyrinth

The idea of a labyrinth being built beneath the Cnossian temple-palace to imprison the likes of a theriomorphic creature in the Minotaur would, to the rational majority at least, demonstrate outlandish absurdities that the musings of a hyperactive imagination can at times come up with when it has little else to do. Thus to gain a firm grasp or understanding of where the concept of the lab ..

Minoan Lunar Consciousness (Part Two)

Other than adding credibility to the Hermetic tenet of “what is above is like that which is below”, the said experiments introduce alchemical esotericism into the cosmological equation as foremost of the methods through which Minoan consciousness and its foreign modes of thought might be interpreted. Alchemy itself remains an entirely holistic and humanistic science which  ..

Minoan Lunar Consciousness (Part One)

Much speculation surrounds the Minoan civilisation, especially when it comes to issues surrounding racial identity and socio-political concerns hoping to pinpoint the period in which the first Minoans actually settled Crete. What remains certain is that these peoples evolved into a highly sophisticated matriarchal culture and probably reached their apogee during the latter stages of the T ..

The Birth of the Minoan Empire (Part Two)

Nowadays, we like to commend ourselves for the technological and scientific ambiance of the twenty-first century. The evolution of interactive applications such as iPhones, iPads, HTC androids, and social networking systems such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace, have shortened distances and shrunk our world considerably. They’ve also contributed to some less favorable consequen ..

The Birth of the Minoan Empire (Part One)

In August of 2007 I revisited Mycenae, an archaeological site in the north-eastern Peloponnese famous for the instrumental role its incumbent Agamemnon played in the Trojan War, a mythological tussle which records the first ever instance the Greeks successfully banded together for the sake of a greater cause. Like a great many other ancient ruins in Greece, the Mycenae of today isn’ ..

To Propitiate the Earth: An Exercise in Active Imagination (Part Two)

Cnossos, 1645bce Potinija watched the priestesses closely as they busied themselves about the sacrosanct, innermost sanctuary of the Juktas temple. The laborious procedures associated with the ritual had to be enacted with great love, passion and attention to detail; otherwise the invocation would not work. No doubt, the Wise One Eilythia was to be commended for her brill ..

To Propitiate the Earth: An Exercise in Active Imagination (Part One)

Cnossos, 1645bce Potinija wove her way in and out of the water, propelling herself forward with the powerful muscles in her tail. There was no way any human being could ever swim like this; their bodies just didn’t allow for it. The feeling of inhabiting a foreign body was still somewhat eerie, though it was one she’d grown used to with tim ..

Plato's Atlantis: Fact or Fiction (Part Two)

he fabled continent made its one and only appearance in Plato’s The Dialogue of Timaeus and Critias, a treatise in which the pre-eminent father of Western thought performed a critical dissection on politics, the perfect state, and governing bodies in general. In all likelihood, the trials and tribulations of Socrates left such a lasting impression on Plato’s psyche that it mot ..

Plato's Atlantis: Fact or Fiction? (Part One)

Santorini was once a quiescent island composed chiefly of limestone and schists. It became the Aegean’s protagonist of periodic cataclysm only after the present Hellenic Volcanic Arc came into existence some three million years ago, a time when eruptions began at a depth of one thousand meters on the adjacent Aegean seafloor. Since then, the volcano has reconstituted and dismembered ..

Plato, Neoplatonism and the Renaissance (Part Two)

Anybody who has taken up a university or college class in philosophy or classics knows about the Platonic Forms–first patterns or blueprints that exist in an eternal, undefiled and wholly integrated zone and project archetypal emanations in the temporal, ever-fluctuating world of Nature. But how did the genius of Plato (427-347BCE) conceptualise this idealistic marker of reality? As ..

Plato, Neoplatonism and the Renaissance (Part One)

I’ve often wondered about the creative impetus that possessed Italian art, sculpture and architecture in the beginning of the fifteenth century in Italy and lasted until the seventeenth. This was well and truly an exciting time in the history of the human race for it remembered the incarnations of the numinous, all-pervading Great Mother Goddess before her demytholization into the l ..

Pythagoras of Samos: Mystic, Shaman or Philosopher? (Part Two)

For years, Pythagoras would have mulled over mathematical formulae and other secrets entrusted to him by the Egyptian priests, the Persian Magi and the shamans of Hindustan before stumbling onto the numerical formula which underpinned the primary consonances of the diatonic (musical) scale. A delightfully romantic but unlikely legend speaks of a time when Pythagoras was brought to a halt  ..

Pythagoras of Samos: Mystic, Shaman or Philosopher? (Part One)

The time preceding the birth of Pythagoras is marked by preternatural light, for a legend propagated by the islanders of Samos centuries beforehand spoke of the coming of a God-son who’d succeed in gaining knowledge of the Divine or the One through the Intellect, an evolutionary step away from jungle instinct and into mystical contemplation which would benefit the whole of mankind.  ..

The ancient Greek concept of "fate" and the Judeo-Christian notion of "free will".

The landscape of ancient Greece as descried by classical myth and history brims with seers, fortune tellers and oracles. The most prestigious of these, the Oracle of Delphi, was built in a deep valley beside the chert-tiered limestone slopes of Mt. Parnassus in lower central Greece. Its builders expressed the rugged, raw, imaginative, superstitious and urgently fatalistic nature that so  ..

The Greek gods and goddesses, the "Apotheosis of George Washington" and the Masonic connection

For a country which is predominantly Christian in its religious sentiments, the United States Capitol exhibits many architectural features and aesthetic depictions that Protestant fundamentalists would gladly denounce as heretical and “pagan”. I vividly remember visiting the city in August of 2005 and being pleasantly delighted by the “pagan” overtones so fearlessl ..

The Origin of Hellenism

Greeks have retained a distinct and very powerful identity over the millennia, but have you ever wondered how this came about? Have you ever wondered why the essence of Hellenism is wholly contained in three unifying principles–family, country and religious belief? To understand the idea of Hellenism we must again turn to the past, to pre-800BCE in fact. This was an exciting ti ..